In August , the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations which was later launched as its first software as a service product. Petersburg , Tel Aviv , Tokyo , and Trondheim. For the first decade of Sun's history, the company positioned its products as technical workstations , competing successfully as a low-cost vendor during the Workstation Wars of the s. It then shifted its hardware product line to emphasize servers and storage. High-level telecom control systems such as Operational Support Systems service predominantly used Sun equipment.
Sun originally used Motorola family central processing units for the Sun-1 through Sun-3 computer series. The Sun-3 series was based on the , with the later Sun-3x using the In the early s the company began to extend its product line to include large-scale symmetric multiprocessing servers, starting with the four-processor SPARCserver MP. In the late s the transformation of product line in favor of large bit SMP systems was accelerated by the acquisition of Cray Business Systems Division from Silicon Graphics. Its intent was to drive more efficient use of CPU resources, which is of particular importance in data centers , where there is an increasing need to reduce power and air conditioning demands, much of which comes from the heat generated by CPUs.
In , Sun ventured into the blade server high density rack-mounted systems market with the Sun Blade distinct from the Sun Blade workstation. In the late s, Sun also marketed an Intel -based machine, the Suni ; this was designed to be a hybrid system, running SunOS but at the same time supporting DOS applications. This only remained on the market for a brief time. A follow-up "i" upgrade was announced but only a few prototype units were ever manufactured. Sun's brief first foray into x86 systems ended in the early s, as it decided to concentrate on SPARC and retire the last Motorola systems and i products, a move dubbed by McNealy as "all the wood behind one arrowhead".
Sun also marketed a Network Computer a term popularized and eventually trademarked by Oracle ; the JavaStation was a diskless system designed to run Java applications. Although none of these business initiatives were particularly successful, the Cobalt purchase gave Sun a toehold for its return to the x86 hardware market. In , Sun introduced its first general purpose x86 system, the LX50, based in part on previous Cobalt system expertise. This was also Sun's first system announced to support Linux as well as Solaris. On January 22, , Sun announced a broad strategic alliance with Intel.
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Defined Gateway functions would forward packets as needed to the correct network. Checksums were used and packets could be "fragmented ''14 or sent out of order and, at the destination, be put back into the correct order. Today we call the protocol IP v4 , or version 4 of the IP protocol. The idea of thousands of networks was not really on their mind. The IP protocol uses a bit base. If you take off of these bits and factor out the numbers available you have about 4 billion possible addresses bits.
The original idea was to use a bit IP address and cut it into chunks. The network used the first 8 bits and the remainder 24 was to be used by the hosts or computers. Take a look at 28 bits, you have possible combinations that you could use for networks. In the s, that was plenty, but today we are out of network numbers We will discuss TCP! IP addressing in a later chapter, and a bit on IP v6.
We will not discuss UDP, ever. Well all correct, maybe a bit later on. In the s, the addressing scheme was genius. I The history of the Internet 7 but in any case, we benefited from their design. Thanks, Mr. Cerf and Mr. When desktop computers first appeared, it was thought by some that TCP was too big to run on a personal computer. This network linked the United States with Europe. Also introduced is the Tandy TRS These off-the-shelf machines create the consumer and small business markets for computers.
The decade also had something to do with disco, but who cares about that. It died anyway. All hosts n m I The history of the Internet converted simultaneously. Over several years, the transition was carefully planned 16 within the community before it actually took place. The year saw another critical point for the Internet: DNS was invented. Here is the issue. Every computer had an address, for example, We could keep track of these numbers if we had about 30 to 40 computers.
But what if we had thousands of computers, how would we humans keep track of all those numbers? Numbering the Internet hosts and keeping tabs on the host names simply failed to scale with the growth of the Internet. The DNS system provided an on-line mechanism to track the names of computers in relation to their IP address.
Previously, each computer needed to maintain its own list. So if you added a computer to the network, you would need to edit each list on each computer. In the case of DNS, all you need to do is edit the list at one place. You have seen these before:. The Internet was starting to mature. By , the Internet was already well established as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers and was beginning to be used by other communities for daily computer communications.
Also, at this time there were several RFCs created that described a concept known as subneting. This process involved a mask number being placed along with an IP address. This, in effect, would divide an IP network into several networks Between the beginning of and the end of , the number of networks grew from 2, to nearly 30, In , the U. National Science m m As we look into the s, the question comes up about There is no explanation better than the one from Cerf and Kahn: As a Senator in the s, Gore urgedgovernment agencies to consolidate what at the time were several dozen different and unconnected networks into an "Tnteragency Network.
Throughout its history, the Internet has provided a platform for collaboration and communication. In , this worm burrowed into the Internet and into 6, of the 60, hosts now on the network at this time. Also, we see the advent of commercial e-mail relays. Now we hear the first rumblings of the "Web. I The history of the Internet turnover of people on projects. Berners-Lee 25 proposed something called "Hypertext" which is a system that will run across distributed systems on different operating systems.
The s" The Internet, as we know it, is born. Millions of web sites appear and try to sell you everything you ever wanted, including the things you wouldn't have bought unless they had appeared right there on your monitor in your living room while you were drinking coffee and listening to the news. Oh, and Clinton gets elected. It serves the contents of an existing, large database of abstracts of physics papers. These companies would then sell connections to groups, organizations, and companies. This ubiquitous network was designed before LANs were even thought of and yet, today it can accommodate a massive amount of traffic.
From to , I Chapter I 12 I. I The history of the Internet the Internet continued to grow. New applications and features were developed and implemented. The hot topic became security. In fact, from to today we have seen these events: I. And the very sad death of the sock puppet. Because pets can't buy or use a credit card for that matter. The fact that pets can't drive is a moot point. The Ethernet Why pick on the Ethernet for its own section and history? Because many of the examples we will be discussing are on the Ethernet.
The Ethernet is a system for connecting computers within a building or your house using dedicated hardware and sofwcare running from machine to machine. Robert Metcalfe was a member of the research staff and was asked to build a networking system for PARC's computers. The motivation for the computer network was that Xerox was also building the world's first laser printer and wanted all of the PARC's computers to be able to print with this printer.
Metcalfe had two challenges: The network had to be fast enough to drive the new laser printer. The network needed to connect hundreds of computers within the same building. There are several disputing stories about when the Ethernet was really invented. For us it really does not matter. If you want a date, use the date from Robert Metcalfe. He said, "gradually over a period of several years. Metcalfe was able to sell Digital Equipment, Intel, and Xerox Corporations on this concept and get them to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard.
In fact, one of the original connectors used was called a DIX connector. Get it? Digital, lntel, Xerox. There aren't any wagons, but there are quite a few cowboys, some lawmakers and some lawbreakers, and some posses though most aren't half as cool as Jesse and the gang, I'll admit , and there are even some screaming villagers to muck things up in the middle of a showdown. How does this work? If Jesse James wanted to break into a house, he would just walk up to it and shoot the lock.
These protocols allow computers to "talk" to each other and to send one another a variety of happy and sometimes not so happy "gifts. The Internet is held together like a cabin is held together with nails and a certain amount of ingenuity. Each nail connects one board to another and each board connects to another board to form the entire house. So let's start off with an analogy. There is a street in your neighborhood, a nice, clean street.
On this street there are two houses. One house will be the sender house and the other house will be the receiver house. We want to send a piece of mail from one house to the other. Now we are talking about postal mail, or "snail" mail, In reality, the postal person will pick up the mail, take it to the post office, and then return it back to the same street.
We will suspend reality for a moment and believe that the postal person will pick up the mail and deliver it directly to the destination house. What components are required for this postal mail to be picked up and then delivered? A postal person A source house with a source address A destination house with a target address A letter or a package I Chapter I 14 1.
Some type of address information on the letter or package A street with a list of addresses and a street name Figure 1. You are at Bubba Street. You want to send a message to Bubba Street. You create a message and place it into an envelope, address the envelope, and send it to Bubba Street. OK, not bad, this works. Let's see how the computer does it. In Figure 1. This network is called Network A.
The data packet travels over the network looking for Computer Once found, it delivers the packet to the computer. Every computer has a source address, and if you want to send data to another computer, you need to know its "target" address. The Transmission Control Protocol TCP is intended for use as a highly reliable host-to-host protocol between hosts in packet-switched computer communication networks. The Internet Protocol IP is specifically limited in scope to provide the functions necessary to deliver an envelope of data from one computer system 1.
Actually, we are not limited to PCs. This can be any networkconnected device, a computer, a printer, a cell phone see WAP in the glossary.
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Each computer or device on a network will have some type of address that denotes where it is on the network. Every device will have one of these addresses, assigned via a permanent mechanism or a temporary addressing scheme. You will notice that we are referencing a network; IP and TCP are used on the Internet but also can be used on any network.
When data is sent via a network e-mail note or a web page , the data or message is carved into little chunks called packets. The packets contain the information required to determine who sent the message as well as the reception of the message. An Ethernet LAN typically uses some type of cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Figure 1. In our examples for your home network we will be discussing the Ethernet LAN. Every NIC card will have some type of address. This address is known as a MAC address and is typically a bit address that is unique for every card.
All Ethernet data is crafted into packets with each packet having the information needed to find its target computer and knowing where it came from. See the IEEE The protocol type tells the computer that is receiving the data what the packet is, e. The CRC is a checksum to make sure the packet did not get corrupted in transmission. OSI is a standard reference mode for how network data is transmitted between any two points in a computer network. The OSI reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a network communication.
OSI divides the communication into seven layers: 1. Presentation Presentation layer: This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another. Session Session layer: This layer sets up, coordinates, and ends conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end of the dialog. Transport Transport layer: This layer manages the end-to-end control and errorchecking. Network Network layer: This layer handles the routing of the data. The network layer does routing and forwarding. Data Link Data link layer: This layer provides error control and synchronization for the physical level.
Physical Physical layer: This layer transmits the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. Cables, Cards FTP, Telent This is the mechanism that actually ports the data to the correct application. TCP ports are defined here. Ethernet, Token Ring, etc. The packets are placed onto the network at this point. Also, the CRC is done here. There is no direct correlation between the TCP protocol model and the OSI model, but they are roughly equivalent in the services provided. The following diagram shows a comparison between the models: I Chapter I 18 1. In each case, a frame is generated with data from the upper layers.
The Internet Layer transfers the packets from a host to a host. Each packet will contain address information relating to the source and destination of the packet. The third level of the Internet software is called the Transport Layer. It is responsible for providing communication between applications residing on different hosts. This can also be called the host-to-host layer.
In a reliable service, the receiving station acknowledges the receipt of a datagram. Next, let's look at the IP packet. IP provides the most basic level of service in the Internet. IP provides the protocol above it with a basic service model and is really similar to the postal service. Using its address scheme, a packet is routed from a source to a destination much like a letter having a street address. Without special handling you will not know if the letter i.
As we mentioned before, all network-connected devices will have an address. Keep in mind that every NIC card has a bit address, but this is how the packet finds its way to a specific NIC card. Addressing between applications happens using the IP address. The laptop computer is sending an IP packet to the server. The source address is Using this nomenclature, the server now knows how to respond back to the laptop computer, assuming the application needs to do that. This address scheme is how computers talk to each other on the Internet or any IP network. Returning to the postal analogy: The IP address is much like the address on the letter, or the address on your house.
The letter packet is dropped into the postal box and it is sent via a network of postal employees, with one finally dropping the letter at your house or mailbox. Part of the IP architecture is the address methodology. Out of the 32 bits of which it is composed, there are approximately 4 billion possible addresses. IP addresses are broken down into octets. Each octet represents a part of the address.
Example: " Each portion of the address is separated with a dot. This is known as Dotted-Decimal IP addressing. The address range for any octet is Also each address, via octet, can be displayed in binary: 1. This is so important that we will not be covering it in this book. Now you are really confused. A subnet is a network that is created by using, or borrowing, bits from the host portion of an IP address.
This is needed to split out the address from the various classes. Why is this so important? Subnetting can be utilized to get full use of an assigned address from an ISP. Mathematically, networks are available, but the architecture reserves address 0 and Bits will make 16 million 16,, addresses available to assign as hosts.
Octet range: The leading bit in the address is 1 Bits 0,1 - Mathematically, 16, I Chapter I 22 1. Bits will make 65, 65, address available to assign as hosts. Mathematically, 2 million 2,, networks are available from bits Bits will make addresses available to assign as hosts.
Class D, leading bits , is used for multicasting and Class E, leading bits , is reserved. Example and uses of the addressing classes: Class A By definition, a class address of 9. The reason is by definition of the class. If computer A is on 9. If that is the case, then they can communicate without the need of a gateway router. Class B By definition, a class address of Again, if computer A is on But See the difference?
Look at the host component of the address to understand the address of an IP address in the table below. Class C By definition, a class address of Table 1. Host Class A w. Our new stop down the network trail is Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented, end-to-end reliable protocol designed to work within a hierarchy of protocols that support networked applications. The TCP provides for reliable communication between pairs of processes applications in host computers attached to separate but interconnected computer networks.
TCP is designed for error-flee bulk data movement and provides error detection and recovery. This can make up for IP's "best effort" delivery service. TCP will setup a connection between two hosts before the actual data transmission begins. It will break the data into chunks, add some sequencing information, and then place these chunks into IP packets. IP then will actually route the data through the Internet to its destination.
The TCP packet contains information about the application. Although IP routes packets through the Internet using the destination address, more information is needed to identify which application on the destination host should receive the data once it arrives. This is accomplished via ports. Both sending and receiving applications are assigned port numbers to send and receive data. Coupled with the source and destination IP address, the source and destination port number, a small integer number, identifies which application is associated with any given data transfer.
As mentioned before, the IP address is like the addressing scheme of the postal service. Once the postal service delivers the letter to your house, further addressing on the letter determines who actually gets the letter. This is where TCP helps out. Once the IP packet arrives at the host then the port determines which application receives the data.
With two bytes of data you can have up to 65, different addresses. These addresses are defined by RFC , http:Hinfo. In this RFC, the ports are categorized. These ports are called "well known ports. The normal port number for web access and server is port The header length is used to tell the target computer the size of the current T C P header in 32 bit words. The session flags are used to control the various data elements sent to the target computer. The Window size is the number of bytes that the sending computer will accept from the target computer without requirement or acknowledgement.
The checksum is an error check for the T C P header fields. The urgent data size can be used if the target computer is congested and it will clear the buffer space as needed to receive and process the data. So far, so good. Now, how can I access a web site? Let's say you want to go to a site. You will need an address. Let's use Easy to use and remember, but what about remembering numbers for 20 or 30 sites.
A process known as DNS solves this problem. Today we access web sites via domain names. Domain names are a method of looking up addresses without having to remember some long number. Remembering a bit number that really maps to a bit number can be difficult. Thankfully, the Domain Name System was created. The following extract describes how domains work.
The variety of ways that places are named will probably leave a blank stare on your face at first. Don't fret; there is a method to this apparent madness. If someone were to ask for a home address, they would probably expect a street, apartment, city, state, and zip code. That's all the information the I Chapter I 26 1. Likewise, computer addresses have a structure to them. For example, somewhere. The trailing domain is often one of the following: com Usually a company or other commercial institution or organization, like Convex Computers convex.
One such gateway is "near. One example is the Electronic Frontier Foundation named "eff. For example, the U. These also have sub-domains of things, like "ac. The proper terminology for a site's domain name somewhere. It is usually selected to give a clear indication of the site's organization or sponsoring agent. In most cases, it's relatively easy to glean the meaning of a domain name. Such confusion is far from the norm. Give the DNS the name of a computer and it returns the address, e.
To look up a name, the computer sends a request to a remote domain server. This server will answer the query and return an actual bit IP address. This address is then used by the application to access the resource and return the data. This is the mechanism that IP uses to get the Ethernet address for a packet. Each network adapter has a unique hardware address that it uses for identification on the network. The computer it's trying to locate will receive the broadcast and send a reply with its IP and hardware addresses.
https://tresvalcampdovo.tk Once the hardware address has been attained, ARP stores the resolved IP and hardware addresses in cache, then proceeds with communication. But this is only part of the story. IP really only communicates on its own network. Remember, we talk about the various classes of networks, A, B, and C. Computer C is on a different IP Network. Also, in our example, all computers are connected to the same physical network. Computer C cannot communicate m m I Chapter I 28 1. Da,a I. The answer is routing. Routing in IP is based entirely upon the network number of the destination address.
Each computer has a table of IP network numbers. If these IP numbers show that the destination computer is in the same network, then the computers can establish a point-to-point communication. If the computers are not in the same network, then a "gateway" will be needed. A gateway is an IP communication facilitator. How can Computer A Let's follow the steps: 1. When a computer wants to send a packet of data, it first checks to see if the destination address is on the system's own local network.
If yes, then the data is sent point-to-point. Our example has computers that are not in the same IP network so the data will be sent to a gateway that is on the source network. In our example, the gateway aka the "default gateway" is at IP address So if the target computer is not on the local network, then all "unknown" traffic will be sent to the gateway.
All traffic for Then the computer will route the data traffic to 1. This concept is very important. If you are going to set up your own private network, you will be using these simple routing concepts. Now, at this point, you may be thinking this routing stuff is easy. It is easy as long as you have a small network.
There are books, courses, and companies that are dedicated to routing implementation, software, and hardware. IP routing can get very complicated very quickly. Remember, this book is trying to give you the concepts to set up and protect your home network.
Do you have a website?
If you need to set up a business, then you need a different book or a consulting service. Remember that when you want to send a message from one house to another you will use an addressing scheme. You have a source address and a target address. In our example you sent that message to your friend at the end of the block. But in our analogy the address was not complete. You put the house address on the message but you did not put "who" the message was going to.
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The "who" part of the message is very similar to a concept known as "ports. At the physical layer, which is the cables, wires, etc. The data link layer would be the same as the street name, e. The street address of the house would b e the same as the IP address at the network layer. At the TCP layer, the port would point to the application receiving the message.
TCP port numbers are divided into three basic ranges: the well known ports, the registered ports, and the dynamic private ports. The well known ports are those from 0 through The registered ports are those from through The dynamic private ports are those from through The well known ports are controlled and assigned by the IANA and on most systems can only be used by predefined system processes or by programs executed by privileged users.
The registered ports are not controlled by the IANA and on most systems can be used by any program or processes.
Hacking into computers can include port scanning or surfing. The essence of port surfing is to pick out a target computer and explore it to see what ports are open and what a hacker can do with them. Scanning, as a method for discovering exploitable communication channels, has been around for ages. Over time, a number of techniques have been developed for surveying the protocols and ports on which a target machine is listening.
They all offer different benefits and problems. Later you will learn how to block ports from the modern-day Jesse James. This process is controlled by a server but initiated by a client computer. The D H C P server assigns a number dynamically from a predefined range of numbers. In D H C P terms, this is called a "scope. Following is the transaction that a server and client will implement: 1. The client is started. The client computer sends a broadcast request out on the network looking for a D H C P server to answer its request.
Open the control panel in Windows 98 and select Network. Once in the Network configuration see Figure 1. A big assumption is that you have a network card NIC in your system at this time. When your system restarts, you should have an address that was assigned to you. But what if you wanted to check out the IP address that 1. Again, if you are using Windows 98, here are the steps: At the Start button select "Run" and type "Winipcfg.
The user can reset one or more IP addresses. The "Release" or "Renew" buttons can release or renew the assigned IP address. Select your network card in the drop-down list as shown in Figure 1. This will display more detailed information about the address that was assigned and any DNS names and addresses that have been assigned to your computer.