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Subsequently, the standard length was measured to the nearest millimeter using a caliper. After the opercula movements had clearly ceased approx. Then, isolated saccular otoliths were embedded in either 0. In the 0. Bubbles were used to test indirectly whether the embedded otolith simply moved together with the agarose block or if differential movement between otolith and surrounding medium occurred.

Hence, we also evaluated the motion of bubbles that formed in the second set of experiments, i. Images were processed using ImageJ v. The bit unsigned mode of the original images was retained and the background was removed by adding the inverted reference image from each image in the stack. The respective reference image had been recorded at the same pixel size, frame rate, and integration time as the image stack without, however, test subject or sound presentation. In one case isolated otolith of E. To illustrate otolith motion, we produced overlays of the mean outlines of the respective otolith at the nine minimum and nine maximum positions during the motion period as averaged otolith outlines Fig.

Saccular otoliths of S. A , B represent mirror images of the left otolith of S. The first column shows 3D reconstructions of the otoliths in medial A , C , dorsal B , or ventral D views. The right column displays the overlays of averaged maximum purple and minimum green positions of the otolith during otolith motion due to stimulus presentation. Motion of otoliths in-situ in E. C 2D radiographic image indicating the selected regions for template matching yellow boxes: right body side, blue boxes: left body side, green box: central structure, i.

Plots in D , E show moving structures of the right body side, those in F , G moving structures of the left body side. For both body sides, otoliths and anterior swim bladder extension move out-of-phase along the x-axis D , F. Along the y-axis, all structures move in phase on the left body side G , but slightly out-of phase on the right body side lagenar otolith and swim bladder vs.

The template matching procedure corrects shifts between images within a stack using a selected region of interest ROI as template for slice alignment. The corrections performed in x- and y- directions for each image can be saved as x-y-coordinates. We ran this procedure with the normalized correlation coefficient method in which a match between the template selected ROI and a corresponding structure on the subsequent images depends on the relative intensity contrast of the pixels under the template We studied between three and 12 ROIs per sample.

In all samples and for both orientations, we analyzed the ROIs of the first and the third recording to test whether the motion of otoliths or other structures bones, swim bladder showed a reproducible pattern. The maximum displacement of otoliths, bones and anterior swim bladder extensions in x- and y-directions in micrometers was evaluated from the yt-reslices, and by using the outcomes of the template matching procedure.

For conversion into true amplitudes in micrometers, the values were divided by the factor 5 to correct for the artificial increase and then multiplied by the pixel size of 6. Motion of the saccular otolith of E. A1 — A2 and B1 — B2 reveal that the anteriormost tip rostrum of the otolith shows greater displacement than the posterior lobe A1 vs. A2 , B1 vs. B2 and that displacement is larger when sound impinged on the dorsal margin vs.

B1 — B2. The two bubbles and the otolith move out-of-phase along the y-axis By. Vertical distance between the pairs of blue lines from top to bottom in A1 — A2 , Using template matching, the image numbers of minima and maxima at the ROIs were inferred from the residual plots.

Then, the x-y-values of a distinctive landmark such as the anterior- or posterior-most tips of the saccular otolith within or close to the ROI were determined in the images of minimum and subsequent maximum displacements. The respective difference of x- or y-values was calculated in pixels and then conversed into micrometers because pixel size was 6. Samples were scanned with the microCT Nanotom at the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM, Munich, Germany to generate high-resolution 3D reconstructions of the isolated otoliths used in the agarose experiments, and to provide 3D models of the whole fish in order to identify bones that overlie the otoliths seen in the 2D radiographic experiments Fig.

The right saccular otolith of E. The whole fish of E. The utricular otolith lapillus in E. We therefore performed a high resolution in-situ phase contrast tomography of a right utricular otolith of another fresh-dead individual at ID The utricle and its otolith were scanned with a voxel size of 0. Otoliths were labelled in each slice using a threshold-based segmentation for surface rendering Fig.

Subsequently, otolith volumes were determined from the final otolith surface models in Amira v. The calculated water displacement during sound stimulation is 0. The recordings of the no-sound periods before and after the actual sound stimulus presentation revealed that otoliths Fig. Evaluation of displacements in micrometers obtained from the yt-reslicing and by using the outcomes of the template matching procedure yielded similar results see below. As the two species show distinct differences in the shape of the saccular otoliths fusiform in S.

The saccular otoliths in both species show a heterosulcoid and ostial sulcus acusticus which is divided in an anterior portion ostium with an opening and a closed posterior portion cauda. The cauda is more strongly curved and more clearly delineated in E. The crista superior forming the dorsal limit of the sulcus shows a crest-like structure almost along the entire length of sulcus in E. Sound impinging from above provoked otolith motion along the vertical y- axis Fig. S1Ay, By but also led, to a lesser degree, to motion along the horizontal x- axis Fig.

S1Ax, Bx. Displacement along the x-axis was less pronounced, with up to 6. Along the x-axis, some parts of the otoliths in both species revealed a phase shift of ca. In the saccular otolith of E. In the saccular otolith of S. S1 Ax. No such phase shift of otolith regions within one otolith was observed when sound impinged on the medial sulcal face of the saccular otolith. Otoliths moved in both x- and y-directions, with the otolith of E. In this orientation, maximum otolith displacement in the two samples was 6. For the E. This indicates a differential motion between the otolith and the surrounding medium agarose.

In contrast, the larger bubbles in the agarose block of the S. For sound impinging on the right lateral body side of E. S5c , S2 Xl, Xr. In y-direction, in contrast, all measured structures of the left body side moved in phase Fig. S2 Yl. On the right body side, a slight phase shift was observed in y-direction between the anterior swim bladder extension and the lagenar otolith on the one hand and the otoliths of the utricule and saccule on the other hand Fig. S2 Yr. Maximum displacements of otoliths as well as of bones and anterior swim bladder extensions were smaller ca.

The aim of our study was to test whether otolith motion can be visualized and evaluated in-situ. To our knowledge, we provide the first set-up and experimental data on the in-situ motion of otoliths in whole fish using a non-invasive synchrotron radiation imaging technique. Some parts such as the crista superior in the otolith of E. Accordingly, motion of the otolith along this axis may lead to just a virtual differential motion within one otolith. These assumptions could be tested by performing tomography that would capture otolith motion in its 3D aspect investigating larger sample sizes.

The amount of maximum displacement apparently depends on the position of the otolith in the sound field or relative to the position of the sound source. This interpretation is based on the fact that the isolated saccular otoliths of E. More damping by surrounding tissue and attached tissue otolithic membrane may also account for the smaller displacements of otoliths in-situ. Hence, measurements of the density of the endolymph and the otolithic membrane in the studied species are needed. Until now, data on the mechanical properties of the endolymph and the otolithic membrane are generally rare e.

In the fish, the different otolith types, i. The utricular sensory epithelium is bowl-shaped and the respective otolith overlies it mainly along the horizontal plane e. The utricular otolith thus has the most degrees of freedom for motion along the horizontal axes. This would be in line with the distinct motion of the utricular otolith along the x-axis in our experiment when sound impinged on the fish oriented with the dorsal side up.

The sensory epithelia of the saccule and lagena are oriented along the dorso-ventral axis e. These interpretations should be tested in further experiments using larger sample sizes, and otolith motion in-situ should also be studied in frontal view. In previous mathematical modelling, otolith displacement was calculated to be 0. In an elastic model that incorporated information about the stiffness of the ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells and the otolithic membrane 19 , otolith displacement was estimated to be 0.

Our study, using a sound pressure of These values are distinctly larger than those obtained by modelling or in the former experimental study We used high SPLs and had to place the test subjects rather close to sound source due to the small tank size. Accordingly, the conditions in our set-up were far from those experienced by a fish in its natural habitat. This, however, was indispensable because we sought a methodological proof-of-principle and tried to provoke large displacements to ensure that available spatial and temporal resolutions would be sufficient to capture otolith motion, which we expected to be weak 22 , Counter-directional methodological requirements of underwater acoustics and X-ray based imaging could be met only by a compromise.

Assumptions based on ideal acoustic conditions e. Conversely, the constraints imposed by the imaging, such as using less X-ray absorbent material demanded the smallest possible water body and a thin-walled test tank. Hence, the deviation between the calculated water displacement of 0. Future experiments should also use different stimulus types referring to sounds produced by cichlids 40 , 41 , frequencies used for acoustic communication 42 , or related to the upper limits of hearing ca. The stroboscopic imaging method used in our study could be scaled up to higher frequencies than 0.

Similar to day 1, [La-] at post demonstrated the highest value when compared to other time points on day 2 baseline: 1. Whole body lactate concentration. A —day 1; B —day 2. A —Clavicular head; B —Sternocostal head. Our main findings indicate that the superset decreased volume load and muscle activation compared to the other ATT and traditional strength training. Interestingly, strength-trained individuals demonstrated lower perceived exertion on day two compared to day one. On day one, superset produced lower volume than traditional strength training, forced-repetition, and pre-exhaustion-B i.

In addition, superset demonstrated the lowest volume load compared to all other techniques. Our findings contradict previous research suggesting that the superset technique can be used without any detrimental effect on volume load [ 20 , 21 ]. However, comparison between these studies should be taken with caution. Most of the previous literature refers to agonist-antagonist, or alternating upper and lower body superset techniques [ 12 , 20 , 21 , 22 ], whereas we have utilized superset technique for the same muscle group.

Furthermore, our data suggest that compared to the traditional strength training session, none of the tested ATT affected volume loads. Soares et al. These researchers demonstrated that pre-exhaustion and traditional strength training sessions produced similar volume loads in strength-trained individuals, which coincide with our findings. Moreover, an important goal of the current study was to assess whether an ATT would either enhance or decrease volume load on the subsequent training session. Interestingly, our subjects were able to perform similar volume loads on day one and two e.

Therefore, strength-trained individuals performing a second ATT session 48 h later did not produce a negative effect on the subsequent training session. In regards to perceptual assessments, our results expand the findings of previous research demonstrating that traditional strength training and pre-exhaustion sessions affect levels of perceived exertion in strength-trained individuals in a similar fashion [ 14 ]. However, Balsamo et al. Additionally, Weakley et al. Our findings do not corroborate with previous research.

Superset produced similar RPE to the other techniques despite participants producing significantly less volume load and taking less time to complete the experimental session. Furthermore, participants reported significantly lower RPE on day 2. Considering that RPE is affected by both physiological and psychological factors [ 24 ], this reduction in RPE may be the result of: a an improvement in their readiness, suggesting that the subjects were more mentally prepared to manage the stimulus on the second training session or b they learned how to pace themselves better throughout the second training session.

Acute muscle swelling and blood lactate concentrations were used as a marker of metabolic stress in the current study. However, our effect sizes suggest that traditional strength training, force-repetition and pre-exhaustion-B sessions had greater magnitude of fluid accumulation compared to other techniques Table 2. Although subjects in force-repetition had an external assistance to complete the last two repetitions of each set, forced-repetition, traditional strength training and pre-exhaustion-B were the techniques that produced the greatest volume loads. This increase in volume may have placed a greater overload on the chest muscles, which may explain the greater responses in acute muscle swelling observed in these three techniques.

Interestingly, our acute muscle swelling findings do not concur with [La-] results. However, our findings are in agreement with current literature demonstrating that strength-trained individuals had higher [La-] in response to high-volume strength training sessions [ 12 , 26 ]. In addition, the [La-] response was similar amongst conditions, despite superset utilizing shorter rest over the course of 10 sets between the flat bench press and the incline bench press.

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Weakley et al. In addition, Kelleher et al. However, the former study employed a protocol where similar muscle groups were not worked consecutively. In the case of the latter, agonist-antagonist were used; whereas, our superset technique utilized the same muscle group between exercises. Despite lower overall volume, it is likely that the shorter rest intervals and less overall rest allowed for similar [La-] to be produced in the superset technique employed in the current study.

Regarding muscle activation, our findings demonstrated that the superset technique produced less clavicular head EMG amplitude than traditional strength training, and pre-exhaustion A and B sessions. Likewise, previous research showed decreases in EMG activity when one chest exercise is immediately followed by another [ 15 ]. The higher metabolic stress relative to time , in the superset technique may attenuate neural drive to the muscles reducing muscle activation [ 27 ]. In addition, the force-repetition technique used in this study is thought to increase muscle activation in strength-trained individuals and subsequently induce larger amounts of neuromuscular fatigue [ 7 , 28 ].

Ahtiainen et al. However, our findings do not completely coincide with those aforementioned studies, as EMG amplitude only tended to be higher in both heads of pectoralis major during traditional strength training session when compared to force-repetition on day 1. Nonetheless, despite relative intensity being higher during the force-repetition technique i. As volume load was not different between forced-repetition and the other techniques besides superset , it is possible that in strength-trained individuals, different training techniques might result in similar levels of muscle activation in order to achieve similar volume loads.

In regards to the pre-exhaustion techniques, our findings corroborate with previous studies that did not find differences in pectoralis major activation comparing traditional strength training and pre-exhaustion sessions in trained individuals [ 14 , 29 ]. However, pre-exhaustion-A showed an increase in pectoralis activation compared to pre-exhaustion-B and superset.

While, it is difficult to compare these findings to current literature due to lack of available data on the effects of different ATT on muscle activation. Still, it is important to point out that there were no differences in pectoralis activation across conditions in sternocostal head on day 2. Our study has several inherent limitations.

Therefore, we cannot paint an accurate picture of the time course of fluid accumulation for each individual. By including measurements of the triceps brachii or anterior deltoid we may have been able to draw better comparisons between studies. Most of the current literature has assessed muscle activation of synergists and prime movers of the upper body during different strength training techniques that include the bench press exercise.

Therefore, we cannot generalize our findings for older trained participants i. Finally, this was an acute study. Further research is needed to examine the chronic effects of perceived fatigue and actual performance variables when repeatedly using different ATT in strength-trained individuals. In conclusion, the superset technique employed herein produced the lowest volume load and induced more neuromuscular fatigue compared to the other ATT, despite similar responses in metabolic stress and perceptual assessments.

In addition, pre-exhaustion-A produced greater muscle excitation than pre-exhaustion-B and superset in the sternocostal head. However, pre-exhaustion-A demonstrated a trend to decrease overall muscle excitation when this technique was repeated in the following session. Regarding metabolic stress, effect sizes suggest that traditional strength training, force-repetition and pre-exhaustion-B sessions had greater fluid accumulation i. On the contrary, [La-] responses were similar across ATT and traditional strength training sessions.

Perhaps, the most interesting finding of the current manuscript is that strength-trained individuals are able to tolerate ATT in a similar fashion to traditional strength training. The ATT did not produce negative performance measures and residual fatigue besides superset.

Although ATT have traditionally been used as a means to optimize metabolic stress, volume load and neuromuscular responses, our data did not project differences in these variables compared to traditional strength training. However, it is important to note that different advanced techniques might produce slight changes in volume load, muscle excitation, and fluid accumulation in strength-trained individuals from session to session. Conceptualization, C. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sports Basel v.

Sports Basel. Published online Jan 6. Find articles by Matt Stefan. Find articles by Jacob Rauch. Find articles by Christopher Barakat. Find articles by Kevin Shields. Eduardo O.

天瓏網路書店-Creating Motion Graphics with After Effects, Vol. 1: The Essentials, 3/e

Find articles by Eduardo O. De Souza. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 31; Accepted Jan 2. Abstract This study investigated the effects of advanced training techniques ATT on muscular responses and if performing a second training session would negatively affect the training stimulus. Some of the embedded systems we use every day are menu control system on television, the timer in a microwave oven and so on with some amount of intelligence built-in.

An embedded system contains at least one microprocessor which performs the logic operations for the system. Many embedded systems use one or more microcontrollers, in the type of microprocessor that emphasizes self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, instead of a general-purpose microprocessor.

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A typical microcontroller contains sufficient memory and interfaces for simple applications. Also with the introduction of this novel designs there is an ample scope to distinguish the erring drivers from the rest. Presently the most manufacturers of automobiles have introduced a good number of safety devices and in conjunction with safety devices, this device articulated by the present researcher may complements the entire safety mechanism thoroughly. In India the introduction of this device in the novel and innovative attempt by the researcher.

TE, G. Lachapelle and H. Grewal et al. Ajay Kumar Reddy, P. Dileep Kumar et al. Vignesh, R. Vignesh Kumar, Ananthakrishnan V. The subject gives a brief look on the suitability of composite leaf spring on vehicles and their advantages. Efforts have been made to replace the composite leaf spring to that of steel leaf spring, without affecting the properties and strength. The design constraints are stress and deflection. The result shows that composite leaf spring reinforced with aluminium has better strain energy storage capacity suitable for suspension and large displacement which increase the failure duration than the conventional steel leaf spring.

Nisar S. Shaikh ,S. Rajmane , Modelling and analysis of suspension system of Tata Sumo by using composite material under static load condition by using FEA, Intenational journal of engineering trends and technology, 12 2 , Venketesan , D. Helmen Devraj, Design and analysis of composite leaf spring in light vehicle, International journal of modern engineering and research, 2 1 , Ragavendra, Syed Altaf Hussian, V.

Pandurangadu, K. M, Dolas D. Patil, M. Sutar, P. Panari, A. Magar, G. In many systems people select their username and text passwords when registering accounts on a website. The matter becomes worse when users would choose easy-to-remember passwords i. Therefore, it is important to take human factors into consideration when designing a user authentication protocol. A Perrig and D. Gawand E. Usable Privacy. Security,New York, , pp. Florencio and C. World Wide Web. Attipalli Avinash, Tarik Eltaeib.

The Selection of Mesh in Networks. In mesh network each computer or processor have maximum of four neighbors. This kind of architecture is implemented in dedicated supercomputers. But, the problem occurs when it comes to the practical implementation in networks. In networks each computer is connected to each other. In this we implement an algorithm to make the mesh network more efficient. The efficient mesh structure is possible in between the best nodes in a network. The proposed algorithm in this mesh network is AGMS ie. Yoo and C. Kim, C. Das and W. Sharma and D.

Yang and J. Michalewicz, Z. Ko and S. Kasprzak, A. Koszalka, D. Cooling tower is one of them that transfer heat of high temperature water of heat exchanger to low temperature water and then cooled water circulates to heat exchanger again. Cooling tower generate cooled water in large amount and store in a water reservoir.

If cooling tower is not design properly it can affect the cooling performance. These cooling towers are enormous and have various unique specifications depending on the environment that they will operate under and the extent to which the owners want to remain efficient and environment friendly. Several parameters as Cooling range, Wet bulb temperature, Mass flow rate of water, Tower height, Air velocity through tower and many other things that affect the performance of cooling tower.

For a good designer all this parameter would want to mind for proper designing and functioning of cooling tower. Kemmer, Frank N. Thermodynamic, an engineering approach- Yunus A. Retrieved 18 June Publisher: Cooling Technology institute. Authors: Paul R. Sanjay R.

Lohar, Narendra D. Vanjara, Rishi A. Dhokad, Sumit S. Pawar Ketaki P. Safety of these occupants is and important aspect of car design, also new safety features are becoming more important as awareness of safety and market competiveness of manufacturers is increasing. Seatbelts are generally used for restraining occupants during a collision but since long time no innovations have been made in this system. Seatbelts also cause various injuries in severe conditions to adults and also to children, called seatbelt syndrome Contusion of anterior abdominal wall caused by lap seat belts, which may produce lumbar spine fractures with horizontal splitting of the vertebral body and posterior arch, trauma to bowel, vessels, spleen and liver 1.

Thus to combat seatbelt syndrome and improve current seatbelt and safety we introduce inflatable seat belts. These are a combination of seat belt and airbag which helps distributing force on the body of the wearer to a greater area during collision, thus preventing localization of forces causing organ damage. It also can be used where using air bags is not possible and they are cheaper in operation and maintenance than airbags. Seat Belt Syndrome. Segen's Medical Dictionary.

The Mobile voting system provides an convenient, easy and efficient way to vote. This research paper provides the specification and requirements for Mobile Voting which is on Android platform. Mobile voting means voting from an android device. Gentles, D and Suresh, S Abdullatif Abdulkarim Zankawi. Semiconductors, Diodes, Transistors and Applications. Bednarek, B. Szafran, and J. B, Vol. Gummel and H. Wang and G. Actuators A, vol. Meijer, J. Matsumoto, M. Ishii, K. Segawa, Y. Oka B. Vartanian and J. Fulton and G. Cleand, D. Estene, C. Urbina and M. Knobel, C. Yung and A.

Ivan N. Research samples are subjected made of three types of iron powders — ASC Thereto is added of 0,2 to 0. Are presented graphics, amending the tensile strength of the samples depending on their density and the concentration of copper and carbon in the iron matrix. Dorfeev, U. Structure Powder Materials and Products,.

Metallurgy, Moscow, , p. May, I.

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Schetky, Cooper in iron and steel, John Wiley and sons. Toronto, , p. Mitev, I. Nichiporenko, O. Pomosov, S. ISBN BAS, Sofia, , p. Ceramic Structural Metal Products. Fedorichenko, I. Lohar, Kaustubh M. Pimple, Smit S. Mhatre, Pramod D. Pansare, Rahul U. Using diesel-kerosene blend, exhaust emissions from diesel engine were more as compared to pure diesel. The performance characteristics of the blends were also compared with Diesel.

Prakash, R. Jikar, M. Bavan, A. Sathiyagnanam, E. Kannan and M. Shalaka V. Parmar, Roshani B. Kharche, Payal V. Mamankar, Hasan M. It improves scalability, diminished concurrent communication, and low power consumption. The proposed paper focuses on design and verification of 4x4x4 3D NoC. The minimum input arrival time before clock and maximum output time required time after clock is estimated as Magarshack and P.

Ashish khodwe, C. Seventh Sense Research Group. Li-Shiuan Pen-Flow control and micro architectural mechanisms for extending the performance if interconnection network August Ben Abdallah, and M. Tatas, C. Kyriacou, A. Bartzas, K. Siozios, D. In such an integrated multimedia environment where assured quality of service is to be delivered to the clients and high availability predictability reliability and timeliness is required. To provide seamless quality of service support and data stream control in a truly end-to-end fashion the need for integration of network and transport service arises.

An appropriate control mechanism support is required for unified processing and communication of continuous multimedia data streams. Garcia, et al. Li and K. Campbell, A. Geoff Coulson, Gordon S. Blair, Philippe Robin, and Doug Shepherd. Jeff Kramer and Jeff Magee. Dynamic Configuration for Distributed Systems.


  1. Romanticism and Slave Narratives: Transatlantic Testimonies.
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Multimedia System Services, Version 1. Danthine, A. Wolfinger, B. Ferrari, D. Hehmann, D. Schulzrinne, H. Kanakia, H. Keshav, S. Kurose, J. Braden R. Campbell, et al. Campbell and G. Gopalakrishna, G. Parekh, A. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Shenker, S. Jacobson, V. Escobar, J. Pacifici G. Manish Kothari, S. Environmental Flows Assessment by Drought Analysis. This concept is fairly well understood in few developed countries however, in developing countries like India, EFs consideration in river water resource development and management poses great challenges.

The computed values further helps to establish a link between EF and drought severity and as a results helps to assess the health EF condition of the river basin. The estimated results could be used in future water resource and river health assessment in the basin. Blake J. Brismar A. Environmental Management Flynn R. Hughes D. Hydrology Journal Jha R, Sharma K.

D, Singh V. P - Critical Appraisal of methods for the assessment of environmental flows and their application in two river systems of India. KSCE journal of civil engineering 12 3 Jha R - Environmental flow assessment using various techniques in a typical river basin of India. Keeffe J. Pyrce R.

S - Hydrological low flow indices and their uses. WSC Report No. Singh K. B - Hydrology of 7day 10 yr low flows. Journal of the Hydraulics division, hy Smakhtin V. Research Report , International water management Institute, Sri lanka. U, Shilpakar R. A - Hydrology based assessment of Environmental flows: an example from Nepal. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 51 2 , Sugiyama H. Water Resources Assoc. Tharme R. S - A Global perspective on environmental flow assessment: emerging trends in the development and application of environmental flow methodologies for rivers.

River Research and Applications Vol. Vladimirov A. Vogal - Flow duration curves. A new interpretation and confidence intervals. Nachev, T. We address some gaps in previous studies, namely: dealing with randomness and 'lucky' set composition; role of variable selection, data saturation, and controlling the problem of under-fitting and over-fitting; and selection of kernel function and model hyper-parameters for optimal performance. In order to avoid overestimation of the model performance, we applied a double-testing procedure, which combines cross-validation, and multiple runs.

To illustrate the points discussed, we built predictive models, which outperform those discussed in previous studies. Horng, M. Su, Y. Chen, T. Kao, R. Chen, J. Lai, and C. Fei, W. Li, and H. Chapman, J. Clinton, R. Kerber, T. Khabaza, T. Reinartz, C. Shearer, and R. Cortez, M. Using sensitivity analysis and visualization techniques to open black box data mining models. Information Sciences vol.

Cortez, A. Cerdeira, F. Almeida, T. Matos, and J. Kewley, M. Embrechts, C. Asuncion and D. Moro, R. Novais Ed. Elsalamony and A. Yu and S. Shin and S. R Development Core Team. Sing, O. Sander, N. Beerenwinkel, and T. Rapid prototyping enables the user to make near net-shape products. Having a good understanding of the thermal history is one of the main challenges of the materials made by rapid prototyping methods.

Since the final product is gradually made under a continuous process, a small area can be heated multiple times during different passes of depositions.

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A series of heating and cooling with different rates cycles can importantly affects the microstructural evolution and the chemical compositions in the case of alloys. In this paper, a finite-element-based thermal model for the manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy on a steel substrate heated by a laser source was developed using COMSOL multiphysics software. The model was assessed based on measuring and comparing the depth and width of the molten with the reported values in the literature.

It was concluded that the developed thermal model can be used for the optimization of the used parameters in the manufacturing process in order to get the desired properties. Hofmeister, M. Wert, J. Smugeresky, J. Philliber, M. Griffith, and M. Vasinonta, J. Beuth, and M. Collins, C. Haden, I. Ghamarian, B. Hayes, T. Ales, G. Penso, V. Dixit, and G. Beuth, and N. Costa, T. Reti, A. Deus, and R. Felicelli, Y. Gooroochurn, P. Wang, and M. Neela, and A.

Patil, and V. Zhang, W. Liu, and X.

Due to economical reasons and the need for environmental conservatism, there has been an increasing shift towards the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement RAP materials in the pavement construction industry. Hot mix recycling is the process in which RAP materials are combined with new materials to produce hot mix asphalt mixtures.

The amount of the added reclaimed asphalt depends on mineral materials and their homogeneity. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the use of a homogeneity reclaimed asphalt pavement in the pavement industry in Egypt evaluating the effects of partial and total replacements of aggregates by RAP on the mechanical and volumetric response of dense-graded HMA mixtures. Laboratory studies were carried out on asphalt mixes with RAP material and their performance was compared with virgin asphalt mixes. Various performance tests such as indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, absorbed energy and wheel tracking test were carried out.

In addition the effect of moisture damage or stripping on strength of RAP mixtures was investigated. Sivilevicius H, H. Reyes-Ortiz O, Berardinelli E. Taylor, N. Recycling of bituminous pavements L. Wood, Ed. Washington, DC, Mengqi, W. TRB Celauro, C. Dubis, P. Sullivan, R. Amirkhanian, Laboratory investigation of moisture damage in rubberised asphalt mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt pavement, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol.

Paul, H. Baron Colbert 1, Zhanping You, The determination of mechanical performance of laboratory produced hot mix asphalt mixtures using controlled RAP and virgin aggregate size fractions, Construction and Building Materials 26 — Huang, B. K, and Animesh Das, Pavement design with central plant hot-mix recycled asphalt mixes, Construction and building materials, Vol 21, No.

Gibney, C. McNally, M. Gilchrist, Influence of recycled asphalt pavement on fatigue performance of asphalt concrete base courses, Journal of Material sand Civil Engineering 22 6 — Mohammad, L.

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Negulescu, Z. Wu, C. Daranga, W. Daly, and C. Abadie, Investigation of the use of recycled polymer modified asphalt binder in asphalt concrete pavements, Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, ,Vol. Puttagunta, R. International Journal of Scientific Research in knowledge, 2 8.

Olard, F. Proceedings of the 4th Eurasphalt and Eurobitume Congress, Denmark, Martins Zaumanisa, Rajib B. Zulkurnain S. In this study, polyethylene glycol PEG , castor oil CO and 1, 6 -hexamethylene diisocyanate HDI were used for synthesis of different kinds of vegetable oil based polyurethanes. The samples were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry.

Changes in mechanical properties, degradation rate, density, and contact angle were also studied. The results showed that degradation and mechanical properties were related to the ratio of castor oil to polyethylene glycol which made these properties controllable. These properties were also affected by the porosity, as storage and loss moduli were decreased and degradation rate was increased in porous samples compared to those of solid ones. Mechanical and physical properties investigation of polyurethane material obtained from renewable natural source. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering ; Biostability and biocompatibility of poly ether urethane containing gold or silver nanoparticles in a porcine model.

Progress in Polymer Science ; Micropatterning of three-dimensional electrospun polyurethane vascular grafts. Acta Biomaterialia ;