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Neither the Department of Children, Youth, and Families DCYF , the State of Washington nor any of its employees makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, translation, product or process that is disclosed, displayed or appears on the DCYF website. DCYF is charged with creating an integrated approach to service delivery, which will help us re-envision how we deliver our system of services. Our work began by looking at the current services we offer and considering how they contribute to positive outcomes for children, youth, and families.

Currently we are working to identify challenges and successes across child welfare, early learning and juvenile justice programs and looking for opportunities to create a cohesive approach, increase efficiencies, and improve family experiences.

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We are identifying gaps in delivery of and connection to services in order to align the structure of our system with the outcomes we hope to achieve. Our focus is on keeping children and youth from entering, having lengthy involvement with, or reentering child welfare or juvenile justice systems.

After defining our ecosystem, our next step was to begin engaging outside partners, stakeholders, and our clients.

Doing this helps us to better understand where the common gaps and barriers exist, and where there is space for improvement through realignment of programs. The integrated services approach team first analyzed the feedback that Secretary Hunter received from staff and communities across Washington over the past year. Comments from these conversations have started to coalesce into some clear themes.

DCYF should…. We believe it is critical to place the voices and experience of children, youth, and families firmly at the center of our thinking when designing the improved system. We will continue to search for and identify gaps in service and program delivery and opportunities for improvement in the next few months. After we reach a firm understanding of the gaps, barriers, opportunities, and successes of our system, we will begin to create plans and processes to re-align our programs and services to improve outcomes. Particularly in Brazil, the principle of integral child and adolescent care was established with a view to promoting, in this population, the rights of every citizen.

Their particular characteristics, considering that they are developing individuals living in risk situations, imply a group of rights that should be ensured through public policies with absolute priority The historical disparities in the "child and adolescent" population have produced distancing cultures and codes as opposed to promoting equity.

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Inequality has reinforced the "apartheid", which, in legal terms, translated into the creation of "special" laws for poor children, in which they appear as objects rather than subjects. This considerably changes the view regarding childhood: rights reinforce the universality and belief in this age group's ability to claim obligations and follow the duties of a citizen life.

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Therefore, it is not enough to ensure children's basic necessities. A deeper understanding of the meaning of considering children as subjects implies taking the quality of care service into account. This care could be offered in an emancipatory fashion, permitting subjects to making choices, or it could be offered by maintaining a tutelary attachment and, thus, increasing the stigma of subalternity. Therefore, educational actions can be carried out within the family, along with the socialization process and social policies, contributing to developing subjects or to maintaining exclusion rather than citizenship.

The paradigmatic perception of children and adolescents as subjects represents the attempt to break with the current social order, presenting a demand for justice and social equity, not only regarding the quantity of services and actions for the child-adolescent population.

What seems indispensable, in this case, is a change in social policy management, focused on the multitude of children, visible or not, so as to effectively increase their level of social insertion. From this perspective, the aim of this study was to gain knowledge about and analyze the Social Representations for Care to Child and Adolescent Victims of Domestic Violence, as well as social workers and service administrators, and compare social representations and subjects' social actions, using the Child and Adolescent Statute as a reference 4.

In order to understand the child and adolescent care policy as well as the technicians' and administrators' statements and perceptions, two analysis categories were established: "child and adolescent care" and "common sense and good sense". Common sense is the spontaneous synthesis of what people in the social environment think; it is a diffuse thought, and this social environment is an important and intense "educator", which generates a need to oppose this structure with a new educational process, or a hegemonic line in greater harmony with the social classes 6.

This aspect presents a possibility of understanding the previous knowledge that professionals who perform and manage public policies have; i. Common sense, a product of man's insertion in history, comprises unattached ideas and opinions, disconnected from a generic thought from a specific time, and concerning a specific environment.

Thus, society derives from the common sense built and rebuilt by social actors across history, with the aim to maintain certain conducts or behaviors determined by dominant ideologies, called social representations, which are present in people's habits, customs, beliefs, and values. These social representations are the goal in this study. The issue is that it should be recognized that people carry along common sense elements; elements of knowledge acquired in diverse places and moments.

In addition, although knowledge means power, knowledge alone does not permit us to get down to the synthesis itself of the history we are part of, as a result of the past. Regarding the first category, child and adolescent care, one first question that deserves consideration is the prevalence of policies for the poor population.

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  • Child and adolescent care policies have been characterized by the care offered to a certain population segment, the poor and excluded. They are connected to the effects of a capitalist system and are referred to as Care Policies. The Brazilian government has responded to the growing demand for social issues, especially the increase in marginality, with a complex care network that aims to provide care to specific "risk groups".

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    These residual social policies usually have a mainly tending role, due to the poverty situation affecting most of the population. It was observed that State responses regarding the child and adolescent social issue mainly concerned offering care to a population of poor children and adolescents, without school, health or basic social policies.

    Another important point is the presence of civil society and the State in child and adolescent care. In certain moments, the hegemony of one of these actors is appropriate and, in others, the positions are shared. This action permeability indicates, in the Brazilian society, the private appropriation of a public asset 7. It should be mentioned that some private groups, especially after the s, defended the public space as the space for child and adolescent rights.

    The Catholic Church is a social actor that has always participated in care for poor and excluded children and adolescents, working in this diffuse space of public and private sectors. And, finally, it was observed that there is an intrinsic relation between legal frameworks and child and adolescent care. Hence, this justifies the influence of legislations on the historical development of policies in this segment and explains the range of services and programs.

    It is understood that this relationship between care policy and legal frameworks, also known as a "judiciary culture of supplementary social policies", molded the judiciary structure Minors Courts for a role that complemented care policies 8. The judiciary became the possibility of children and adolescents to have access to basic social policies and care programs.

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    Due to the significance for care policies, it can be characterized, at first, by the "irregular situation and institutionalization" and, also, as "subjects entitled to rights and special protection". This social policy configuration is responsible for an important part of the unsatisfactory results that characterize governmental social actions. The marginal situation, among the priorities of the political and economic agenda, is also found in specific literature.

    Researchers have recently become interested, especially after the s, in studies about social policies, mainly those regarding child and adolescent care.

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    This is a strategic research, using a qualitative approach. Social representations were used as the methodological principles of choice 9. Study subjects were all PAOF professionals and their administrators, comprising 12 participants; i. Data collection was carried out through semistructured interviews and participative observation by the researchers and scholarship-holding students. This permitted to explore the data regarding the institution and identify elements that could denote the type of care being offered, as well as their meanings. To ensure data privacy and secrecy, participants were identified through a letter system: administrators - C; social workers - A; psychologists - P; and occupational therapists - T.

    Data analysis was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic method. This method essentially proposes a confrontation, which implies the articulation between the material obtained from the social workers' statements and observation, allied to the social institution settings that comprise the social knowledge process, with a view to providing understanding of the statements as a result of a social knowledge process. Data were ordered and classified so as to become operational - reading and re-reading the collected material and elaborating empirical categories based on theoretical foundations.

    This study was based on the situation of domestic violence children and adolescents are exposed to at home and in social spaces in our community. Children and adolescents receive care from the program for family support and guidance. The program is made effective through individual and group care, offered to families and child and adolescent victims of domestic, sexual, and psychological violence, as well as victims of negligence and abandonment. In order to carry out the proposed work, professionals organize the care according to the family's residence location.

    This method aims to determine one reference professional for each region, so as to make it possible for him or her to become familiar with the population, public and private institutions in the work area, and, consequently, other professionals involved. During the family follow-up period, professionals encourage the family's insertion in the community - counting on a support network: day care centers; community centers; health care; professionalizing activities; minimal income; nutritional support; and others.

    Groups meet according to the families' demands, aiming to include themes related to domestic violence, child education, family and conjugal relationships, adolescence and drugs. Three empirical categories were identified in the statement groups: " lack of policy", "not comforting because was not comforted" and " social care" , which cover social workers' social representations regarding the care to child and adolescent victims of domestic violence.

    The empirical categories of the data analysis process represent the authors' reflections on the social representations of professionals involved in care for child and adolescent victims of domestic violence. Families and child and adolescent victims of domestic violence who receive care from the PAOF and other programs and services of the Department for Children and Adolescents at Risk have a life reality characterized by the situation of poverty: they live in precarious housing conditions and have several problems regarding nutrition, unemployment and education particularly school dropout , as shown in the following report:.

    Studies about violence and its causes indicate that, among various factors, unemployment and poverty appear as responsible for frustration and stress, which, in turn, may lead to abuse 7, These authors also note that work conditions should be considered as factors that could increase stress and personal frustration. Extensive work shifts and rigid discipline, among others, appear as the main causes in the aggressor's profile. This setting, throughout the s, resulted in an intense process of deteriorated living conditions, especially on the outskirts of the city, where social exclusion takes place.

    So, I think that it is not just a life story, it is the current story that parents face. Because adolescents who never have anything, they don't have sneakers, they don't have snacks, they don't have television, it becomes hard on the parents to use other forms to set limits because they have nothing else to lose" P2. Investments and technological diffusion are not impartially divided, and thus result in problems concerning transportation, communication, electricity and basic social services.

    This city's adjustment was due to the accumulation and concentration of large companies in detriment of social interests. Therefore, the city has portrayed, over the last decades, an increase in social problems due to the dissonance between economic and social evolution, as shown in the following statement:. Public care spaces, in this context, have always received a demand from population segments punished by poverty, holding a place in public policies " of ideological substitute for the retraction of basic social policies" This policy has been stigmatizing and segmenting, since it divides and labels children from poor social classes - needy, abandoned, anti-social behavior, transgressor, delinquent - thus creating a perverse circle.

    The Child and Adolescent Care Policy stigmatizes and is stigmatized, since it is conceived as a place of poor for the poor, an ideological space present in the imagination of middle-class and wealthy families.

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    • In the following statement, this situation is clearly observed:. This family does not want to be exposed in a municipal project. They already go to doctor offices" P3.