Diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA of marine origin tend to decrease plasma triglycerides, improve the plasma cholesterol profile, and reduce the risk of CHD [ 18 — 20 ]. Fish and fish oils are primary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the two primary protective n-3 oils [ 21 ]. These associations lead to the promotion of increased fish consumption as part of the American Heart Association's dietary recommendations for reducing CHD [ 4 ].
Food products derived from mammals e. Food products derived from poultry especially eggs , fish mainly cold water varieties and shellfish including shrimp tend to have SFA to PUFA ratios of or less.
These two different food groupings have the potential to exert different effects on plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein cholesterol. Previous studies of the LCD have not compared different types of foods with different lipid profiles for effects on weight loss and the plasma lipid profile. The present study examined the dietary effects of two different diets under free-living conditions encountered by typical dieters using an LCD.
Subjects were recruited for the study following ethical approval by the Winona State University Human Subjects Committee. Subjects were self-described as overweight, non-smokers between the ages of 30 and 50 years who were not currently taking cholesterol-lowering drugs. Subjects were required to refrain from alcohol for one week prior to the start of the study January 10, and for the remainder of the 28 days of the study.
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Subjects were screened for eligibility by phone and 21 eligible subjects were invited to attend an orientation session during the week prior to the study. Eighteen individuals, 6 males and 12 females, participated in the study. The baseline body mass index of the 12 moderately obese persons who completed the study was The primary motivation for study participation was achievement of desired weight loss.
Subjects received no monetary compensation for their participation. The study attempted to create conditions that would be similar to those encountered by typical free-living people attempting to lose weight in a non-clinical atmosphere. At an orientation session, subjects were familiarized with the mechanics and goals of a LCD regimen. Subjects were instructed to consume on a daily basis not more than three cups of salad greens or two cups of salad greens and a cup of cooked low-glycemic index vegetables similar to those previously described [ 24 ]. Subjects were also asked to exclude caffeinated beverages and other sweetened beverages from their diet.
Alcohol intake was limited to no more than one drink per week. Foods high in soy protein were permitted for either group, although diet records revealed soy-products were seldom consumed by either group. Since PFS subjects expressed concern about being able or willing to avoid cheese mammalian origin and high in saturated fat for 28 days, no more than 3 oz of cheese per day was permitted for both groups as a way to improve dietary compliance.
However, cow's milk was not permitted by either group. The subjects were randomly assigned to a LCD high in RM or PFS and for the following 28 days and the subjects of both groups were responsible for purchasing, preparing, and consuming the foods specific to their assigned group.
At the instructional session, subjects were also shown how to maintain a food journal that would record daily food intake during the study. Subjects were contacted by phone or e-mail one to three times per week in order to answer any questions about dietary compliance, food journal completion, and to promote improved dietary compliance.
Aerobic exercise was suggested as a means of promoting maximal weight loss, but no attempt was made to quantify subject physical activity during the study. During these visits subjects submitted their food journals, were weighed, and provided with a new food journal for self-recording of daily food intake.
Journals were used for monitoring dietary compliance and to provide subjects with feedback on what foods were and were not acceptable. After the interview, urine samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of ketones with Bayer Multistix 10 SG reagent strips.
Urine samples were tested immediately to determine if subjects had reached a ketotic state. At the conclusion of the study, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured in duplicate by using a Dade Behring Dimension RxL clinical chemistry analyzer and direct measurement Deerfield, IL. The plasma fatty acid profile of day plasma samples was generated to assess overall dietary compliance.
Plasma was extracted using a modified Folch wet tissue lipid extraction [ 25 ]. A temperature-programmed procedure was used [ 27 ] and fatty acids were identified by comparing the retention time with the GLC standard purchased from Nu-chek-Prep Elysian, MN. The fatty acid composition was calculated using the peak areas on a percentage basis. Nutritional content of the two diets was analyzed using the weekly food diaries and the Interactive Healthy Eating Index IHEI dietary assessment tool [ 28 ].
Nutrient intake profiles for the day study were created for each subject and the average nutrient intake between day 0 and 28 was calculated for each subject. Collected data were analyzed by using the Microsoft Excel data analysis package for descriptive statistics and two-tailed Student's t -test for comparison between the two treatment groups Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA.
Data were not used from six subjects: one dropped out voluntarily, one was dropped when found to have been taking Lipitor for the control of blood lipids throughout the study, one was dropped due to taking large dose NSAIDs for an injury, two were dropped from the study because of gross dietary non-compliance, and one was dropped for failure to provide a detailed dietary record.
The intake of total calories, protein, fiber, total fat, SFA, and monounsaturated fat was also not significantly different between the two groups over the course of the day study period Table 2 , although SFA intake did approach statistical significance. The average SFA intake for each person during the 28 day study in the RM and PFS groups was not correlated with plasma palmitic and stearic acid, expressed as a percentage of total plasma fatty acids Figure 2.
Weight loss experienced by the RM and PFS groups in the current study was comparable to that observed on week four of other previous LCD studies [ 12 , 13 , 29 , 30 ].
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The degree of carbohydrate restriction in the current study was similar to some previous studies [ 9 , 12 ] but greater than others [ 7 , 8 , 10 , 13 , 30 ] and greater than the target value of the Atkins induction phase [ 24 ]. In interviews with subjects prior to the start of the study, it was determined that cheese was a major element that subjects in both the RM and PFS groups strongly preferred to include in their diets. The investigators chose to permit controlled and documented cheese consumption in the PFS group in order to improve honest dietary reporting and compliance.
Carbohydrate chemistry is a large and economically important branch of organic chemistry. Some of the main organic reactions that involve carbohydrates are:.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 September Organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Main article: Monosaccharide. Main article: Disaccharide. Main article: Low-carbohydrate diet. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism.
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September 18, Retrieved April 3, Nutrition Reviews. The Lancet. Public Health Meta-analysis. Lancet Review. Obesity Reviews Systematic review. Endocrine Reviews. Akabas SR, et al. Behavioral approaches to the treatment of obesity. Textbook of Obesity. Taken together, these findings indicate that calorie intake, not macronutrient composition, determines long-term weight loss maintenance.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Review. The British Journal of Nutrition. Nutrition Reviews Systematic review. Eur J Nutr Review. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Diabetes Care. British Dietetic Association. December 7, The British Dietetic Association BDA today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in Biochemistry Notes, Notes. Metabolism , catabolism , anabolism.
https://ljusexnomo.tk Metabolic pathway Metabolic network Primary nutritional groups. Protein synthesis Catabolism. Pentose phosphate pathway Fructolysis Galactolysis. Glycosylation N-linked O-linked. Photosynthesis Anoxygenic photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Carbon fixation. Xylose metabolism Radiotrophism. Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis. Steroid metabolism Sphingolipid metabolism Eicosanoid metabolism Ketosis Reverse cholesterol transport.
Amino acid synthesis Urea cycle. Purine metabolism Nucleotide salvage Pyrimidine metabolism. Metal metabolism Iron metabolism Ethanol metabolism. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis. Synthesis and Reactions.
Isolation from Natural Sources. Miscellaneous Nitrogen Derivatives. Thio and Selenosugars. Alditols and Cyclitols. N M R Spectroscopy and Conformational. Other Physical Methods.